Peer-Reviewed Journals
Conference Proceedings

Peer-Reviewed Journals


40. S. Rho, H. S. Sanders, B. D. Smith, T. D. O'Sullivan, "Miniature wireless LED-device for photodynamic-induced cell pyroptosis", Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy (2024)


39. R. Dale, T. D. O'Sullivan, S. Howard, F. Orihuela-Espina and H. Dehghani, "System derived spatial-temporal CNN for high-density fNIRS BCI," in IEEE Open Journal of Engineering in Medicine and Biology, doi: 10.1109/OJEMB.2023.3248492.


38. H. Ayaz, W. B. Baker, G. Blaney, D. A. Boas, H. Bortfeld, K. Brady, J. Brake, S. Brigadoi, W. M. Buckley, S. A. Carp, R. J. Cooper, K. R. Cowdrick, J. P. Culver, I. Dan, H. Dehghani, A. Devor, T. Durduran, A. T. Eggebrecht, L. L. Emberson, Q. Fang, S. Fantini, M. Angela Franceschini, J. B. Fischer, J. Gervain, J. Hirsch, K.-S. Hong, R. Horstmeyer, J. M. Kainerstorfer, T. S. Ko, D. J. Licht, A. Liebert, R. Luke, J. M. Lynch, J. Mesquida, R. C. Mesquita, N. Naseer, S. L. Novi, F. Orihuela-Espina, T. D. O’Sullivan, D. S. Peterka, A. Pifferi, L. Pollonini, A. Sassaroli, J. Ricardo Sato, F. Scholkmann, L. Spinelli, V. J. Srinivasan, K. St. Lawrence, I. Tachtsidis, Y. Tong, A. Torricelli, T. Urner, H. Wabnitz, M. Wolf, U. Wolf, S. Xu, C. Yang, A. G. Yodh, M. A. Yücel, W. Zhou, "Optical imaging and spectroscopy for the study of the human brain: status report," Neurophoton. 9(S2) S24001 (30 August 2022).

37. G. P. Philipopoulos, B. Sharareh, G. Ganesan, B. J. Tromberg, T. D. O’ Sullivan, R. Schwarzkopf. Characterizing tourniquet induced hemodynamics during total knee arthroplasty using diffuse optical spectroscopy. J Orthop Res. 2022; 1-11. 


36. R. Stillwell, V. J. Kitsmiller, A. Y. Wei, A. Chong, L. Senn, and T. D. O’Sullivan.  A scalable, multi-wavelength, broad bandwidth frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy platform for real-time quantitative tissue optical imaging. Biomed. Opt. 2021; 12, 7261-7279.

35. S. Vasudevan, C. A. Campbell, F. Liu, and T. D. O'Sullivan. Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy of absolute methemoglobin concentration can distinguish benign and malignant breast lesions. J. Biomed. Opt. 2021; 26(6), 065004 (2021), doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.26.6.065004.

34. J. M. Cochran, A. Leproux, D. R. Busch, T. D. O'Sullivan, W. Yang, Rita S. Mehta, A. M. Police, B. J. Tromberg, A. G. Yodh. Breast cancer differential diagnosis using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging and regression with z-score normalized data. J. Biomed. Opt. 2021; 26(2) 026004.


33. C. Campbell and T. D. O’Sullivan. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy for noninvasive measurements of the malaria pigment hemozoin. Biomedical Optics Express. 2020; 11: 5800-5813.

32. K. A. Leyba, S. Vasudevan, T. D. O'Sullivan, and  C. J. Goergen. Evaluation of Hemodynamics in a Murine Hindlimb Ischemia Model Using Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2020; 0196-8092.

31. V. J. Kitsmiller, C. Campbell, and T. D. O’Sullivan. Optimizing sensitivity and dynamic range of silicon photomultipliers for frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy. Biomedical Optics Express. 2020; 115373-5387.

30. A. Tank, H.M. Peterson, V. Pera, S. Tabassum, A. Leproux, T. D. O’Sullivan, E. Jones, H. Cabral, N. Ko, R.S. Mehta, B.J. Tromberg & D. Roblyer. Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging reveals distinct early breast tumor hemodynamic responses to metronomic and maximum tolerated dose regimens. Breast Cancer Research. 2020; 22(1): 29.

29. S. Vasudevan, F. Forghani, C. Campbell, S. Bedford, T.D. O’Sullivan. Method for Quantitative Broadband Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy of Tumor-Like Inclusions. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(4): 1419.


28. N. Bosschaart, A. Leproux, O. Abdalsalam, W. Chen, C. E. McLaren, B. J. Tromberg, T. D. O’Sullivan. Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging for the investigation of human lactation physiology: a case study on mammary involution. J Biomed Opt. 2019; 24(5): 056006.

27. V. J. Kitsmiller and T. D. O’Sullivan. Next generation frequency domain diffuse optical imaging systems using silicon photomultipliers. Opt Letters. 2019; 44(4): 562-565.


26. J. M. Cochran, D. R. Busch, A. Leproux, Z. Zhang, T. D. O’Sullivan, et al. Tissue oxygen saturation predicts response to breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy within 10 days of treatment. J Biomed Opt. 2018; 24(2):021202.

25. V. J. Kitsmiller, M.M. Dummer, K. Johnson, G. D. Cole, T. D. O’Sullivan. Frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy with a near-infrared tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Opt Express. 2018; 26(16):21033-21043.

24. J. H. Lam, T. D. O’Sullivan, T. S. Park, J. H. Choi, et al. Noninvasive dual-channel broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy of massive hemorrhage and resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in swine. Mil Med. 2018; 183:150-156.


23. R. V. Warren, J. Cotter, G. Ganesan, L. Le, J. P. Agustin, B. Duarte, K. Cutler, T. O’Sullivan, B. J. Tromberg. Non-invasive Optical Imaging of Resistance Training Adaptations in Human Muscle. J Biomed Opt. 2017; 22(12):121611.

22. T. D. O’Sullivan, K. No, A. Matlock, R. V. Warren; B.Hill, A. E. Cerussi, and B. J. Tromberg. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser sources for gigahertz-bandwidth, multiwavelength frequency-domain photon migration. J Biomed Opt. 2017; 22(10):105001. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.22.10.105001

21. A. Leproux, T. D. O’Sullivan, A. E. Cerussi, et al. Performance assessment of diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging instruments in a 2-year multicenter breast cancer trial. J Biomed Opt. 2017; 22(12):121604. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.22.12.121604

20. C. E. McLaren, W. Chen, T. D. O’Sullivan, D. Gillen, M. Su, J. H. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg. Sample Size and Power Determination when Limited Preliminary Information is Available. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2017; 17(1):75. .

19. H.S. Yazdi, T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, B. Hill, et al. Mapping breast cancer blood flow index, composition, and metabolism in a human subject using combined diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2017; 22(4):045003.

2016 and earlier

18. B. J. Tromberg, Z. Zhang, A. Leproux, T. D. O’Sullivan, et al. Predicting Responses to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer: ACRIN 6691 Trial of Diffuse Optical Spectroscopic Imaging. Cancer Res. 2016; 76(20):5933-44.

17. A. Leproux, Y. M. Kim, J. W. Min, C. E. McLaren, W. Chen, T. D. O’Sullivan, S. Lee, P. Chung, and B. J. Tromberg. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using Diffuse Optical Spectroscopic Imaging (DOSI). J Biomed Opt. 2016; 21(7):074001.

16. G. Ganesan, R. V. Warren, A. Leproux, M. Compton, K. Cutler, S. Wittkopp, G. Tran, T. O’Sullivan, S. Malik, P. R. Galassetti, and B. J. Tromberg. Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging of subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolic changes during weight loss. Intl J Obesity. 2016; 40(8):1292-300.

15. J. Ehren, T. Krasieva, T. D. O’Sullivan, B. Tromberg, and P. Maher. Cell and Brain Tissue Imaging of the Flavonoid Fisetin Using Two-Photon Microscopy. Neurochem Int. 2015; 89:243-248.

14. T. D. O’Sullivan*, R. T. Heitz*, N. Parashurama*, D. B. Barkin, B. A. Wooley, S. S. Gambhir, J. S. Harris, and O. Levi. Real-time, continuous, fluorescence sensing in a freely-moving subject with an implanted hybrid VCSEL/CMOS biosensor. Biomed Opt Express. 2013; 4:1332-41.

(* indicates shared first authorship)

13. D. Roblyer, T. D. O’Sullivan, R. V. Warren, and B. J. Tromberg. Feasibility of direct digital sampling for diffuse optical frequency domain spectroscopy in tissue. Meas Sci Technol. 2013; 24:045501.

12. T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. Chen, S. Bahri, A. Matlock, D. Roblyer, C. E. McLaren, W. Chen, A. E. Cerussi, M. Su, and B. J. Tromberg. Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res. 2013; 15:R14.

11. N. Parashurama*, T. D. O'Sullivan*, A. de la Zerda , P. El Kalassi , S. Cho , H. Liu , R. Teed , H. Levy, J. Rosenberg , Z. Cheng , O. Levi , J. S. Harris , S. S. Gambhir. Continuous sensing of tumor-targeted molecular probes with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser-based biosensor. J Biomed Opt. 2012; 17(11):117004. (* indicates shared first authorship)

10. T. O'Sullivan, A. E. Cerussi, D. J. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg. Diffuse optical imaging using spatially and temporally modulated light. J Biomed Opt. 2012; 17(7):071311.

9. S. Ueda, D. Roblyer, A. Cerussi, A. Durkin, A. Leproux, Y. Santro, S. Xu, T. O'Sullivan, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, B. J. Tromberg. Baseline tumor oxygen saturation correlates with a pathologic complete response in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cancer Res. 2012; 72:4318-4328.

8. A.E. Cerussi, R. V. Warren, B. Hill, D. Roblyer, A. Leproux, A. F. Durkin, T. O'Sullivan, S. Keene, T. Quong, W. M. Mantulin, and B. J. Tromberg. Tissue Phantoms in Multi-Center Clinical Trials for Diffuse Optical Technologies. Biomed Opt Express. 2012; 3(5):966-971.

7. E. A. Munro, H. Levy, D. Ringuette, T. O’Sullivan, and O. Levi , “Multi-modality optical neural imaging using coherence control of VCSELs,” Opt Express. 2011; 19(11):10747-10761.

6. J. S. Harris, T. O'Sullivan, T. Sarmiento, M. M. Lee, and S. Vo. Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers. Semicond Sci Technol. 2011; 26:014010.

5. T. O'Sullivan, E. Munro, N. Parashurama, C. Conca, S. S. Gambhir, J. S. Harris, and O. Levi. Implantable semiconductor biosensor for continuous in vivo sensing of far-red fluorescent molecules. Opt Express 2010; 18(12):12513-12525.

4. T. Sarmiento, H. Bae, T. O'Sullivan, and J. S. Harris. GaAs-based 1.53 µm GaInNAsSb vertical cavity surface emitting lasers. Electron Lett. 2009; 45(19):978-979.

3. J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, M. Razeghi, and G. Brown. Fabrication of indium bumps for hybrid infrared focal plane array applications. Infrared Phys and Techn. 2004; 45:143-151.

2. J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. Sills, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M. Tidrow High Detectivity InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition. Appl Phys Lett. 2004; 84(12):2166-2168.

1. J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow. Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs). Appl Phys Lett. 2004; 84(13):2232-2234.

Conference Proceedings

37. R. A. Stillwell, A. G. Longoria, E. W. Sheeder, K. A. Gonzalez, N. Ross, T. D. O'Sullivan, "Demonstration of an entirely handheld real-time frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy imaging system," Proc. SPIE PC12827, Multiscale Imaging and Spectroscopy V, PC128270A (13 March 2024)

36. N. Campeau, A. Wei, A. Gajjar, O. Abdalsalam, T.D. O'Sullivan, "Assessing tissue interrogation volume of an implantable optical sensor using TracePro ray tracing software," Proc. SPIE 12827, Multiscale Imaging and Spectroscopy V, 1282707 (12 March 2024).

35. M. S. Islam, Z. M. Enciso, S. Rho, K. L. Ranganatha, A. Wei, T. D. O’Sullivan and S. Joshi. “A 0.57 mm2 Platform with 70.7% Efficient 4 mA 3.2 V Charge Pump and a Current-Input Ramp ADC for Implantable Optical Sensing of Tumors,” 2023 IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS). (Toronto, ON, Canada) doi:10.1109/BioCAS58349.2023.10389076

34. C. Coverstone, O. Abdalsalam, A. Barreto, A. Wei, J. R. de Wolf, S. M. Schoustra, T. D. O’Sullivan, and N. Bosschaart, “Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging of breast tissue composition changes during lactation,” European Conference on Biomedical Optics (Munich, Germany), paper 12628-8 (2023).

33. R. A. Stillwell, A. G. Longoria, K. A. Gonzales, E. W. Sheeder, A. Barreto, N. Ross, and T. D. O’Sullivan, “NearWave Imager: The First Entirely Handheld Real-time Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Imaging System,” European Conference on Biomedical Optics (Munich, Germany), paper 12628-35 (2023).

32. O. S. Abdalsalam, N. Ross, G. A. Perkins, R. Dale, H. Dehghani, T. D. O’Sullivan, and S. L. Ferradal, “Comparison of multi-distance and multi-frequency methods in frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” SPIE Photonics West 2023, January 30, 2023, paper 12376-7.

31. R. Dale, T. D. O’Sullivan, S. Howard, C. Campbell, F. Orihuela-Espina, and H. Dehghani. “High-speed spatial parameter recovery using multi-distance frequency-domain DOS,” SPIE Photonics West 2023, January 30, 2023, paper 12376-6.

30. R. Dale, T. D. O’Sullivan, and H. Dehghani, "Intelligent system-driven convolutional feature extraction improves FD-fNIRS imaging and analysis," in Biophotonics Congress: Biomedical Optics 2022 (Translational, Microscopy, OCT, OTS, BRAIN), Technical Digest Series (Optica Publishing Group, 2022), paper JM3A.71.

29. C. Campbell, O. Abdalsalam, S. S. Howard, H. Dehghani, and T. D. O'Sullivan, "Diffuse optical tomography using phased-array structured interrogation frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy," in Biophotonics Congress: Biomedical Optics 2022 (Translational, Microscopy, OCT, OTS, BRAIN), Technical Digest Series (Optica Publishing Group, 2022), paper OW3D.5.

28. R. A. Stillwell, T. D. O'Sullivan, "A real-time fully handheld frequency domain near infrared spectroscopy imaging system," Proc. SPIE PC11944, Multiscale Imaging and Spectroscopy III, PC119440D (2022).

27. S. Rho, R. A. Stillwell, P. Fay, K. K. Ludwig, T. D. O'Sullivan, "Optically-enhanced wireless breast lesion localization device for use during lumpectomy," Proc. SPIE 11949, Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XX, 119490F (2022).

26. O. Abdalsalam, S. Howard, T. D. O'Sullivan, "Improved sensitivity to deep tissues using phase-based structured interrogation frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 11944, Multiscale Imaging and Spectroscopy III, 119440A (2022).

25. A. Y. Wei, G. Moore, K. Yan, B. Mahoney, J. R Smith, T. D. O'Sullivan, "Smart breast clip: A wireless implant for continuous molecular sensing of breast masses," Proc. SPIE PC11972, Label-free Biomedical Imaging and Sensing (LBIS) 2022, PC1197215 (2022).

24. S. Yazdi, S. Mohammadi, S. Lahade, A. Beck, T. Quang, J. H. Lam, T. D. O'Sullivan, M. M. Green, "Broad-bandwidth frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy system on a chip," Proc. SPIE 11956, Biophotonics in Exercise Science, Sports Medicine, Health Monitoring Technologies, and Wearables III, 1195603 (2022).

23. R. A. Stillwell and T. D. O’Sullivan, "High-speed 2D Imaging with Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy," in European Conferences on Biomedical Optics 2021 (ECBO), OSA Technical Digest (Optica Publishing Group, 2021), paper ES2B.2.

22. S. Vasudevan, C. Campbell, F. Liu, T. D. O’Sullivan, “Minor tissue absorbers can distinguish benign and malignant breast lesions using broadband quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE, Vol 11639, 1163906 (2021). 

21. K. Leyda, S. Vasudevan, T. D. O’Sullivan, C. Goergen, “Spatial frequency domain imaging of hemodynamic parameters in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia,” Proc. SPIE, Vol 11215, 112150C (2020).

20. V. J. Kitsmiller, C. Campbell, T. D. O’Sullivan, “Silicon photomultipliers increase signal to noise ratio in frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy of Human Muscle,” OSA Technical Digest, OSA Biophotonics Congress: Biomedical Optics 2020Clinical and Translational Biophotonics, TTh4B.3.

19. R.A. Stillwell, V. J. Kitsmiller, T. D. O’Sullivan, “Towards a high-speed handheld frequency-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy deep tissue imaging system,” OSA Technical Digest, OSA Biophotonics Congress: Biomedical Optics 2020Clinical and Translational Biophotonics, TTu1B.7.

18. V. Kitsmiller and T. D. O'Sullivan, "Fundamental considerations for integrating silicon photomultipliers in frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE, Vol 11274, 112740T (2020).

17. T. D. O'Sullivan, A. Leproux, G. Philipopoulos, W. Chen, C. McLaren, A. M Police, F. Combs, D. Wisner, M. Su, B. J. Tromberg, "Broadband diffuse optical imaging of tamoxifen-induced changes in breast composition and metabolism (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE, Vol 108560, 108560C (2019).

16. S. Vasudevan, F. Forghani, C. Campbell, T. D. O'Sullivan, “Hyperspectral, hybrid continuous wave and frequency domain diffuse optical tomography in a handheld reflectance geometry for breast cancer diagnostics,” SPIE Photonics West (BiOS), Proc. SPIE, Vol 10874, 108740J (2019).

15. V. Kitsmiller, R. Stillwell, T. D. O’Sullivan, “Toward handheld real time frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE, Vol 10874, 1087405 (2019).

14. O. Abdalsalam, Y. Zhang, S. Howard, T. D. O’Sullivan, “Self-calibrated frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy with a phased source array,” Proc. SPIE, Vol 10874, 1087403 (2019).

13. C. Campbell, B. J. Tromberg, T. D. O’Sullivan, “Toward noninvasive detection and monitoring of malaria with broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE, Vol 10501, 105010F (2018).

12. V. J. Kitsmiller, M. Dummer, K. Johnson, T. D. O'Sullivan, “Tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for use in the near infrared biological window,” Proc. SPIE, Vol 10488, 104880L (2018).

11. T. D. O'Sullivan, K. No, A. Matlock, B. Hill, A. E. Cerussi, and B. J. Tromberg, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) sources for frequency domain photon migration,” Proc. SPIE, Vol 9319, 93192A (2015).

10. S. T Keene, A. E. Cerussi, R. V. Warren, B. Hill, D. Roblyer, A. Leproux, A. F. Durkin, T. D. O'Sullivan, H. Haghany, W. W. Mantulin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Development of quality control and instrumentation performance metrics for diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging instruments in the multi-center clinical environment,” Proc. SPIE, Vol 8578, 85782M (2013).

9. T. O'Sullivan, A. Leproux, J. Chen, O. Nalcioglu, B. J. Tromberg, and M. L. Su, "Correlation of Breast Density Measured by MRI and Diffuse Optical Spectroscopic Imaging (DOSI) in the Contralateral Normal Breast of Patients During Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy," Proc. of ISMRM, 20th meeting (2012).

8. M. M Lee, T. D. O’Sullivan, A. Cerruto, V. Liu, J. Zhang, O. Levi, H. Lee, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Integrated photonic structures for parallel fluorescence and refractive index biosensing,” Proc. SPIE, Vol 8034, 803406 (2011).

7. R. T. Heitz, D. B. Barkin, T. O’Sullivan, N. Parashurama, S. S. Gambhir, and B. A. Wooley, “A low noise current readout architecture for fluorescence detection in living subjects,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest, p. 308-310 (2011).

6. T. O'Sullivan, E. A. Munro, J. S. Harris, and O. Levi, "Fabrication of an integrated 670nm VCSEL-based sensor for miniaturized fluorescence sensing," Proc. SPIE, Vol 7615, 76150D (2010).

5. T. O'Sullivan, E. A. Munro, C. Conca, N. Parashurama, A. De la Zerda, S. S. Gambhir, J. S. Harris, and O. Levi, "Near-Infrared in vivo Fluorescence Sensor with Integrated Dielectric Emission Filter," Proc. of the Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Paper JWA49, (2009).

4. T. Sarmiento, H. P. Bae, T. O’Sullivan, and J. S. Harris, “1528 nm GaInNAsSb/GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers”, Proc. of the Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Paper CTuY4, (2009).

3. T. O'Sullivan, E. A. Munro, A. De la Zerda, N. Parashurama, Z. Walls, O. Levi, S. S. Gambhir, and J. S. Harris, "Implantable optical biosensor for in vivo molecular imaging," Proc. SPIE, Vol 7173, 717309 (2009).

2. T. O'Sullivan, A. Wechselberger, O. Levi, and J. Harris, "Compact Semiconductor Bioluminescence Bio-sensors," in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America), paper JMD5 (2007).

1. S. Tsao, A. V. Gin, K. Mi, J. Szafraniec, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. O'Sullivan, J. Jiang, M. Razeghi, G. J. Brown, and M. Z. Tidrow, "InGaAs/InGaP quantum dots and nanopillar structures for infrared focal plane array applications" ," Proc. SPIE, Vol 5563, p. 75-87 (2004).


4. V Kitsmiller, RA Stillwell, and TD O’Sullivan. Frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy device and optical detector calibration method. European patent EP3773204B1 (2023).

3. BJ Tromberg, K Cutler, C Van Wagenen, S-H Lee, T O'Sullivan, G Meenakshisundaram, A Majumder, and A Cerussi. Motion tracking apparatus and method. US Patent 11,160,470 (2021).

2. R. Warren, G. Ganesan, T. D. O'Sullivan, S. Malik, B. J. Tromberg, P. Galassetti. Predicting weight loss and fat metabolism using optical signal changes in fat, United States Patent US10827974B2, Issued 2020-11-10.

1. S. M. Zarandi, B. J. Tromberg, T. D. O'Sullivan, S. S. Yazdi, A. Cerussi. Hand-held optical scanner for real-time imaging of body composition and metabolism, United States Patent US10653346B2, Issued 2020-05-19.